Skip to main content

Functional programming in Java 8


In my previous post, we discussed about why we should consider to use functional programming. Now, let's delve into what functional programming in Java is.

What is pure functional programming?

Shortly, functional programming is programming using functions. A function corresponds to a mathematical function such as log, sin. Basically, it takes zero or more arguments, give one or more result, and has no side effects.

We can't completely program in pure functional style in Java

Why?  For example, calling Scanner.nextLine twice typically gives different result.

So, it's just called "functional-style programming". How is that?
- There is no mutating structures visible to callers. That means your side effect may not be visible to a program, but it's visible to the programmer in terms of slower execution.
- A function or method shouldn't throw any exceptions (follows the concept "pass arguments, return result"). We can use types like Optional<T> instead.
- For pragmatic reasons, we can accept some code that can't be strictly described as functional, e.g: some form of log file.

We call it "no visible side effects" or referential transparency

With functional-style programming, we follow the rule "no visible side-effects" includes no mutating structures visible to callers, no I/O and no exceptions. This concept is called "referential transparency". A function is referentially transparent if it always returns the same result value when called with the same argument value. For example, "huong".replace("h", "H") but Random.nextInt

Will function-style programming replace object-oriented programming?

Why? And, why not? These are just programming styles. It depends!
In practice, Java programmers have always mixed object-oriented and functional-style programming styles.
- Object-oriented programming style: everything is an object and programs operate by updating fields and calling methods that update their associated object.
- Functional-style programming style: referential transparency. It helps enable you to write programs that are more modular and more suitable for multicore processors. These ideas are as additional weapons in your programming armory.

Reference

Image result for java 8 in action

[1]. Alan Mycroft and Mario Fusco, Java 8 in Action: Lambdas, Streams, and Functional-style Programming. Part 4. Beyond Java 8.

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

AngularJS - Build a custom validation directive for using multiple emails in textarea

AngularJS already supports the built-in validation with text input with type email. Something simple likes the following:
<input name="input" ng-model="email.text" required="" type="email" /> <span class="error" ng-show="myForm.input.$error.email"> Not valid email!</span>
However, I used a text area and I wanted to enter some email addresses that's saparated by a comma (,). I had a short research and it looked like AngualarJS has not supported this functionality so far. Therefore, I needed to build a custom directive that I could add my own validation functions. My validation was done only on client side, so I used the $validators object.

Note that, there is the $asyncValidators object which handles asynchronous validation, such as making an $http request to the backend.

This is just my implementation on my project. In order to understand that, I supposed you already had experiences with Angular…

The HelloWorld example of JSF 2.2 with Myfaces

I just did by myself create a very simple app "HelloWorld" of JSF 2.2 with a concrete implementation Myfaces that we can use it later on for our further JSF trying out. I attached the source code link at the end part. Just follow these steps below:

1. Create a Maven project in Eclipse (Kepler) with a simple Java web application archetype "maven-archetype-webapp". Maven should be the best choice for managing the dependencies, so far. JSF is a web framework that is the reason why I chose the mentioned archetype for my example.

2. Import dependencies for JSF implementation - Myfaces (v2.2.10) into file pom.xml. The following code that is easy to find from http://mvnrepository.com/ with key words "myfaces".

<dependency> <groupId>org.apache.myfaces.core</groupId> <artifactId>myfaces-api</artifactId> <version>2.2.10</version> </dependency> <dependency> <groupId>org.apache.myfaces.core</groupId&g…

Only allow input number value with autoNumeric.js

autoNumeric is a jQuery plugin that automatically formats currency and numbers as you type on form inputs. I used autoNumeric 1.9.21 for demo code.

1. Dowload autoNumeric.js file from https://github.com/BobKnothe/autoNumeric
2. Import to project
<script src="http://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.11.0/jquery.min.js"></script> <script type="text/javascript" src="js/autoNumeric.js"></script> 3. Define a function to use it
<script type="text/javascript"> /* only number is accepted */ function txtNumberOnly_Mask() { var inputOrgNumber = $("#numberTxt"); inputOrgNumber.each(function() { $(this).autoNumeric({ aSep : '', aDec: '.', vMin : '0.00' }); }); } </script>
4. Call the function by event
<form> <input type="text" value="" id="numberTxt"/>(only number) </form> <script type="te…

Retrospective with Sailboat

Have you ever got bored with the Retrospective meeting? I have, sometime. Most of the times, this meeting just goes traditionally by answering three questions: "What good things have we done? What bad things have we done? And, what actions should we improve?" Ever and ever again! My team found a way to make it a little bit more exciting. The idea is that each member - not only our Scrum Master - will become a host. If a meeting is hosted by a memeber, the next meeting will be hold by another one.

Yeah, I used "Sailboat" pattern in my turn. So, I just want to share with you guys how it was.
I started the meeting by telling a short story that I hoped everyone in my team could recall the meaning behind of Retrospective meetings:
There is a group of people trying pick up trash in a park. At the first look, the park seem not to have a lot of trash because they are spread out all over the place. However, these people continuously found trash when they started. They kept …

Applying pipeline “tensorflow_embedding” of Rasa NLU

According to this nice article, there was a new pipeline released using a different approach from the standard one (spacy_sklearn). I wanted to give it a try to see whether it can help with improving bot’s accuracy.

After applying done, I gave an evaluation of “tensorflow_embedding”. It seemed to work better a bit. For example, I defined intents “greet” and “goodbye” with some following messages in my training data.
## intent:greet- Hey! How are you? - Hi! How can I help you? - Good to see you! - Nice to see you! - Hi - Hello - Hi there ## intent:goodbye- Bye - Bye Bye - See you later - Take care - Peace In order to play around with Rasa NLU, I created a project here. You can have a look at this change from this pull request. Yay!

When I entered message “hi bot”, then bot with “tensorflow_embedding” could detect intent “greet” with better confidence scores rather than bot with “spacy_sklearn”. The following are responses after executing curl -X POST localhost:5000/parse -d '{&qu…